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Diario (Italian Edition) Manlio Ranieri. Il mondo visto da Amelia, ventitreenne in cerca di certezze. Il diario nell'era della carta che scompare, dei social.
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Implemented policies addressing salt Similar to policy recommendations, most of the implemented policy approaches can be broadly categorised into those that aim to provide information, make the healthy option available, or provide financial dis incentives related to salt consumption. Restrict or eliminate choice a Limitations of salt content in foods EU. USA, New York. Denmark, Iceland, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden. Various countries. Official Journal of the European Union L p. Seattle, United States- Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation IHME , GBD study Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for countries and territories, — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Lancet Kloss et al.

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Trieu K. Implemented policies addressing salt. Food Item.

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Processed or unprocessed version. Cardiovascular Disease. Because of the well-established relationship between blood pressure and cardiovascular disease outcomes,' there is moderate quality evidence that 'reduced sodium is beneficial for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. Coronary Heart Disease. Low strength evidence that 'higher dietary sodium intake is associated with a greater risk for fatal and nonfatal stroke. Blood pressure and hypertension.

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High strength evidence that reducing sodium intake lowers blood pressure in adults. Strong evidence that sodium reduction is beneficial to maintaining a normal blood pressure and can lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Serum lipids. High-quality evidence that 'reducing sodium intake had no significant adverse effect on […] blood lipids.

High intake of sodium might increase the risk of kidney stones.

High-quality evidence that 'decreasing sodium has no harmful effect on catecholamine levels or any minor side effects e. Dietary recommendation. Public health goals: 'Population average consumption of salt from all sources to be less than 5 g 2 g of sodium a day' Personal recommendations: 'Limit consumption of processed foods with added salt to ensure an intake of less than 6 g 2. SACN IOM For adults, a tolerable upper intake level UL for sodium is 2. EU countries Most countries' food based dietary guidelines recommend limiting salt intake to 5 or 6 g per day. The recommended maximum level for children 2—15 years of age should be adjusted downward based on the energy requirements of children.

Adequate intakes for sodium for children: 1 to under 4 years: 0. Restrict or eliminate choice a. Implement guidelines including salt criteria for foods served in institutions schools, workplaces, hospitals, care facilities, and prisons. Legislation on composition of foods to reduce salt content of foods and beverages is recommended.

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Guide Choice through dis incentives a. Taxation on foods high in sodium 'may encourage consumers to reduce consumption and revenues generated could support health promotion efforts. Enable or guide choice through changing default a. Promoting food reformulation should be among the first salt reduction actions to consider. Engage with the food industry, agree on progressively lower targets for salt levels in foods and meals, and set a time frame.

Mandatory approaches using legislation or regulation are more effective than voluntary approaches, possibly more cost-effective as well. Successful voluntary reformulation programmes require strong government leadership, close collaboration with industry and publication of good monitoring data on the salt content.

Besides engaging food industry, other options for supporting reformulation are taxing foods high in salt, implementing effective labelling and communication strategies. For effective reduction in salt intake, it is proposed to prioritise food categories contributing most to population salt intake. Food manufacturers should prioritise the products with largest market share and deliver salt reduction across the full range of products from economy to premium items. Salt content in products should be reduced progressively in order to allow consumers to adapt to the less salty taste and to ensure continuous progress.

Encourage the food industry to reformulate products to lower sodium content. Reducing the salt content in processed foods such as bread, sausage and cheese is recommended. Gradual reduction of salt content allows consumers to adapt to the taste. Marketing foods high in salt to children should be restricted. WHO proposes a nutrient profile model for the European Region. Public health campaigns. Raise awareness of major sources of salt and health risks associated with salt intake. When major source is discretionary salt, education should be targeted to consumers, cooks and caterers.

When major source is from processed foods, the target audience should be food industry and policy-makers. Focus on the link between salt intake and health, how to interpret salt labelling, how to choose and prepare low-salt alternatives. Implement behaviour change programmes education, communication in community settings schools, workplaces, hospitals, care facilities and prisons. Set clear and specific behavioural objectives and implement a mix of strategies to provide information.

Implement public education campaigns to increase the awareness of the health effects of excess added sodium. Improve, standardize and implement Nutrition Facts labels and Front of Package FOP labels to help consumers make informed food choices. Monitor a. To track the changes of reducing salt content in foods, it is important to collect salt content information either with surveys or by chemical analysis of foods.

Design monitoring and evaluation plan with defined indicators and time frames. Objective and transparent reporting will encourage the stakeholders to deliver on their commitments.

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Limitations of salt content in foods. The reduction in salt content should be progressive. Legislation on mandatory maximum levels of sodium in meat products, breads, soups, seasoning mixes, and tinned food, also applicable to salt levels in restaurant dishes.

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Producers and importers not meeting the requirements may be fined. In Romania legislation sets maximum amounts for salt 1. Products distributed under the school fruit, vegetables and milk scheme shall not contain added salt. Guide choice through dis incentives a. Enable or guide choice through changing defaults a. Food reformulation. The 'Salt List' aims to inspire producers to lower salt content in all products for the benefit of public health.

The list, compiled by a working group under the Danish Salt Partnership public-private partnership , consists of 15 target food categories and 77 subcategories, and is part of the Danish salt reduction strategy. Salt Reduction Programme initiated by the food safety authority aims to voluntarily reduce salt content in processed foods.

Companies and trade associations register within the programme and report yearly on undertakings and achievements. The agreed approach is to reduce by 0. The UK salt reduction sets targets for industry to reduce the salt content. To date, there have been four sets of target published , , and The targets specify specific salt or sodium levels to be met in 80 food categories and subcategories, including various meat, cereal, bread, cheese pizza, sandwiches and snack products.

Mandatory and voluntary reformulation through 'Less Salt, More Life' initiative.

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Voluntary agreements negotiated and signed with food industry food manufacturers and retailers. A salt reduction strategy engaged food industry to voluntarily reduce salt content in bread and cheese. The Ministry of Health emphasized educating companies on methods and benefits of salt reduction and the importance of private sector in population-wide salt reduction.